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Understanding God's Word... What the Bible Says About Baptism

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What does the Bible teach about baptism? Baptism is one of the most important beliefs of Christianity, but why? What is this ceremony all about? Is baptism merely an archaic symbol, or does it hold a deep meaning for the modern Christian? Does it matter which method of baptism is used: sprinkling, pouring, immersion or some other technique? When should one be baptized? Let's examine what the Bible says about this important subject.

Before we search the Scriptures for the answers to these questions, let's examine some pertinent historical factors and language considerations. Baptism is rooted in the Old Testament. For example, in the book of Exodus, God required the priests to ritually bathe themselves before offering sacrifices (Exodus 30:17-20 Exodus 30:17-20 17 And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 18 You shall also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash with: and you shall put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and you shall put water therein. 19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat: 20 When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire to the LORD:
American King James Version×
). The Jews properly viewed ritual bathing as an act that represented cleansing from sin. In time, they applied this principle to gentiles desiring to convert to Judaism.

The Holman Bible Dictionary comments: “At some point close to the time of Jesus, Judaism began a heavy emphasis on ritual washings to cleanse from impurity. This goes back to priestly baths prior to offering sacrifices (Leviticus 16:4 Leviticus 16:4He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches on his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen turban shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.
American King James Version×
, 24). Probably shortly prior to the time of Jesus or contemporary with Him, Jews began baptizing Gentile converts, though circumcision still remained the primary entrance rite into Judaism” (article “Baptism”).

Because of this precedent, no one considered it strange for John the Baptist or Jesus to emphasize baptism in their ministries. Later, the apostles compared baptism to Old Testament events, Peter likening Noah's protection in the ark (1 Peter 3:20 1 Peter 3:20Which sometime were disobedient, when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.
American King James Version×
, 21) and Paul likewise relating Israel's crossing the Red Sea (1 Corinthians 10:2 1 Corinthians 10:2And were all baptized to Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
American King James Version×
) as types, or forerunners, of baptism.

As Bible dictionaries show, the word translated into English as baptism is from the Greek word baptizo , meaning “to dip into” or “immerse.” The Greek language clearly uses different words to express sprinkling or pouring, none of which ever refers to baptism. The New Testament reveals that baptism was usually performed in a river, with those who were baptized coming out of the water after being immersed.

Discussion: God sent a special messenger preceding Jesus Christ who taught the need for baptism. What was his message? (John 1:19-27 John 1:19-27 19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who are you? 20 And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ. 21 And they asked him, What then? Are you Elias? And he said, I am not. Are you that prophet? And he answered, No. 22 Then said they to him, Who are you? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What say you of yourself? 23 He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias. 24 And they which were sent were of the Pharisees. 25 And they asked him, and said to him, Why baptize you then, if you be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet? 26 John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there stands one among you, whom you know not; 27 He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe’s lace I am not worthy to unloose.
American King James Version×

  • Did John the Baptist emphasize repentance as necessary for baptism? What did John expect to see demonstrated as a result of repentance? (Matthew 3:1-11 Matthew 3:1-11 1 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea, 2 And saying, Repent you: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare you the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. 4 And the same John had his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leather girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey. 5 Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, 6 And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. 7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said to them, O generation of vipers, who has warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance: 9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say to you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. 10 And now also the ax is laid to the root of the trees: therefore every tree which brings not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. 11 I indeed baptize you with water to repentance. but he that comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:
    American King James Version×

Note: John's message regarding baptism differed from contemporary religious teaching in that he taught that baptism was much more than simply a symbol of ceremonial cleansing. He taught a baptism of repentance, confession of sin and the need for moral cleansing (verses 5-8). For more information on repentance, review the study “What Is Repentance?” in The Good News of January 1996.

  • Did Jesus come to John the Baptist to be baptized by John? How did the Father demonstrate His approval of Christ's baptism? (Matthew 3:13-17 Matthew 3:13-17 13 Then comes Jesus from Galilee to Jordan to John, to be baptized of him. 14 But John forbade him, saying, I have need to be baptized of you, and come you to me? 15 And Jesus answering said to him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becomes us to fulfill all righteousness. Then he suffered him. 16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, see, the heavens were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting on him: 17 And see a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
    American King James Version×

Note: The sinless Son of God did not need to be baptized, but He sought baptism to fulfill all righteousness and to set an example for His followers. Note verse 16, which states that Jesus “came up immediately from the water.”

  • After Jesus Himself was baptized, did He encourage His disciples to be baptized and, on His behalf, to baptize others? Why do you think Christ taught this? (John 3:22 John 3:22After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.
    American King James Version×
    ; 4:1, 2).
  • With what instructions did Jesus commission His Church before He ascended to heaven? (Mark 16:16 Mark 16:16He that believes and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believes not shall be damned.
    American King James Version×

Note: Jesus felt that the need for baptism was so important He commissioned His Church to go all over the world and baptize disciples who believe the gospel message. Let's now review in greater detail why baptism is so vitally important as a process of salvation.

  • Why do you think Peter clearly emphasized the need for repentance and baptism to receive the gift of God's Holy Spirit? (Acts 2:38 Acts 2:38Then Peter said to them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.
    American King James Version×

Note: Converting to Christianity is more than simply accepting Christ as one's personal Savior. Even demons believe and know that Christ is the Son of God (James 2:19 James 2:19You believe that there is one God; you do well: the devils also believe, and tremble.
American King James Version×
, 20), yet they are not offered salvation. Peter stresses the necessity for repentance and baptism for the removal of sins. Repentance involves a complete change in our thinking and a recognition of our need for the shed blood of Christ to cleanse us from sin. As a result of this understanding, the next step of salvation is baptism.

Baptism is a serious, life-altering commitment. For this reason, baptism is reserved for mature adults who understand the importance of this meaningful commitment. In the whole of the New Testament, there is not a single example of an infant or child being baptized.

Discussion: How do you think Paul came to this important understanding, comparing baptism to a death, burial and resurrection? (Romans 6:3 Romans 6:3Know you not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?
American King James Version×
, 4).

Note: The symbolism of the watery grave of baptism communicates profound meanings. First, as an ordinance, baptism represents our faith in the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus as our Lord and Master. We accept the shed blood of Christ for our sins and picture the death of our former life in the baptismal grave. As Christ was resurrected a spirit, our coming out of the grave (rising out of the baptismal waters) symbolizes our new, converted, Spirit-led life. Our understanding the true meaning of repentance and conversion lifts baptism to more than symbol status; it becomes a profound, life-changing event!

Notice how Paul refers to baptism as a call to walk in “newness of life.” In Romans 6:11 Romans 6:11Likewise reckon you also yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God through Jesus Christ our Lord.
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, he states that we, rather than facing death, are now “alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Baptism is an outward sign of an inward change of heart and mind. This powerful picture of a new life committed to obedience and faith is so important it is also discussed in 1 Peter 1:3 1 Peter 1:3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy has begotten us again to a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
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; 1 Peter 1:22-2 1 Peter 1:22-2
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:3; Ephesians 4:22 Ephesians 4:22That you put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;
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; and Colossians 3:10 Colossians 3:10 And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him:
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. As Paul mentions in Romans 6:1 Romans 6:1What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?
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, 2, our new life in Christ Jesus should propel those of us “who have died to sin” to desire to live in it no longer, that it should not reign over us. Finally, another symbol of baptism is that it pictures our faith in Jesus to resurrect us from death when He returns (Romans 6:4 Romans 6:4Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.
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; 8:9-11).

  • What name should a Christian be baptized into? Why? (Matthew 28:19 Matthew 28:19Go you therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
    American King James Version×

Note: We are baptized into the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, not into any particular sect or denomination. This does not mean, however, that Christians should be independently preaching their own messages. Christ established His Church and actively leads it to powerfully fulfill the commission of Jesus Christ to baptize disciples and preach the gospel to the world (Mark 16:15 Mark 16:15And he said to them, Go you into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
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, 16).

  • What significant event should follow the act of baptism? (Acts 8:14-18 Acts 8:14-18 14 Now when the apostles which were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John: 15 Who, when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost: 16 (For as yet he was fallen on none of them: only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) 17 Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost. 18 And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles’ hands the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money,
    American King James Version×

Note: Baptism cleanses us from our past sins, but Jesus Christ does not leave us alone to face the future. He offers us the precious gift of His Holy Spirit to empower us for a life of overcoming and serving others and Him in obedience and faith. God's Spirit is imparted to us by the “laying on of hands.”

  • In what way was the laying on of hands used in the Old Testament? (Numbers 8:10-12 Numbers 8:10-12 10 And you shall bring the Levites before the LORD: and the children of Israel shall put their hands on the Levites: 11 And Aaron shall offer the Levites before the LORD for an offering of the children of Israel, that they may execute the service of the LORD. 12 And the Levites shall lay their hands on the heads of the bullocks: and you shall offer the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering, to the LORD, to make an atonement for the Levites.
    American King James Version×

Note: Much like baptism, the practice of laying on of hands has its history in the Old Testament. In ancient times, this practice, often accompanied by anointing with oil, set men apart for the specific offices of king and priest. It was also invoked to set sacrifices apart for holy use.

Discussion: Since the time of Jesus, the laying on of hands after baptism signifies the actual receiving of the Holy Spirit and the setting apart of a convert as a child of God. It is only through the gift of God's Spirit that we can develop the godly attitude of obedience and faith. Scriptures that refer to the laying on of hands include Acts 9:18 Acts 9:18And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight immediately, and arose, and was baptized.
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; Acts 19:6 Acts 19:6And when Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spoke with tongues, and prophesied.
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and 2 Timothy 1:6 2 Timothy 1:6Why I put you in remembrance that you stir up the gift of God, which is in you by the putting on of my hands.
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Further study: Baptism is an essential part of the process of conversion and salvation. All who repent of their sins and accept Jesus Christ as Savior should be baptized. Our Savior was sinless, yet He was baptized as our example, and taught His disciples the important meaning of baptism. Baptism, performed in water deep enough to immerse or completely dip the believer, holds profound meaning:

  • It represents our faith in the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus as our Lord and Master.
  • It pictures a new, converted life on our coming out of the watery grave.
  • It pictures our faith in Jesus Christ to resurrect us from death when He returns.
  • It pictures our being set apart as children of God, and is followed by the laying on of hands, portraying the receiving of the Holy Spirit.

The result of baptism is the opportunity for you to have a changed life with spiritual guidance and direction through the indwelling of God's Holy Spirit, leading you into the Kingdom of God! 

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  • onormanns

    This bring in the crucial questions:

    A - Is then our child baptism inactive.
    B - Should we or is it legal to re-baptize when come to the faith.
    Dietrich Bonhoeffer dealt with it thus:

    - Being baptized, suffering the call of Christ. In Baptism man becomes Christ’s own possession. when the name of Jesus is spoken over the candidate, he becomes partaker in this name, and is baptized into “Jesus Christ”.
    - The old man cannot will his own death or kill himself. He can only die in, through and with Christ. Christ is his death. it is death in the power and fellowship of the cross of Christ.
    - Baptismal death means justification from sin (differ from salvation as i understand)by the sharing of the death of Christ.
    - the disciple who followed in the fellowship of the cross received exactly the same gift as the believer who was baptized.
    - The baptism of Christ can never be repeated.(heb 6.4)second repentance not possible after baptism and conversion.
    - the baptized live, not by a literal repetition of this death, but by a constant renewal of their faith in the death of Christ.
    -This element of finality in baptism throws significant light on the question of infant baptism.
    - The problem not whether infant baptism is baptism at all, but that the final and unrepeatable character of infant baptism necessitates certain restrictions in its use.
    - to baptize infants without a Church is not only an abuse of the sacrament, it betokens a disgusting frivolity in dealing with the soul of the child, for baptism can never be repeated.
    - Baptism makes us member of the body of Christ.

    What other views and insight are there to decide upon this dilemma?

    In Christ

  • Ivan Veller

    Hello M. Normann,

    That is an important question, and a personal one. While I would refer people to a minister for individual counseling on a case-by-case basis, here is our general teaching on the topic:

    “Should children be baptized?

    ‘…‘… both men and women were baptized’ (Acts 8:12).

    ‘Baptism is for those mature enough to comprehend and believe the meaning of repentance and baptism. Except on rare occasions for some in their later teen years, most children are not old enough to evaluate why they sin. They simply are not mature enough to understand their own nature and what is wrong with it.

    ‘Children are precious to God. Jesus took little children into His arms and blessed them (Mark 10:13-16). But in every specific example of baptism mentioned in the Bible, we see that those being baptized were old enough and mature enough to understand repentance, baptism and the seriousness of their commitment. Only those who are mature enough to produce the fruits of repentance should be baptized.

    ‘Is it ever necessary to rebaptize adults?

    ‘‘And he said…, ‘Into what then were you baptized?’ …‘Into John’s baptism.’ Then Paul said, ‘John indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people that they should believe on Him who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.’ When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus’ (Acts 19:3-5).

    ‘Although these people had been immersed by the baptism of John the Baptist, they had not received the Holy Spirit (verse 2). Only those who receive God’s Spirit are converted disciples of Christ (Romans 8:9). Paul rebaptized them in the name of Jesus Christ so they would receive the Holy Spirit. Today many people have been baptized who never understood what sin is or what real repentance entailed. They, too, would need to be rebaptized to receive God’s Spirit and be converted.”

    “[B]aptism without repentance is merely an empty, invalid ritual…Paul had to rebaptize some people who had previously been baptized but lacked sufficient understanding to be truly converted (Acts 19:1-5). They had been immersed in water, but they did not receive the Holy Spirit until Paul properly counseled and rebaptized them.”

  • Ivan Veller

    Hi again Normann,

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer certainly presents an intriguing argument that rightly recognizes that baptism does not guarantee salvation. And I like his passion! However, certain fundamental premises from which the structure of his position is based could, I would suggest, merit reasoned reexamination. To that end, I believe the following considerations can provide fuller and more complete insight relevant to our dilemma:

    Firstly, he posits, “The problem is not whether infant baptism is baptism at all.”

    I would disagree. We teach that baptism “is an outward demonstration of the inner commitment a Christian has made, repenting of his or her sins and seeking God’s forgiveness…[B]abies are not able to make a decision about committing their lives to the obedience and service of God; they do not understand what sin is or how they sin. God requires all of these factors of a person seeking baptism, and no one can do this for him or her.”

    “[B]aptism requires repentance (Acts 2:38), faith (Mark 16:15-16) and commitment (Luke 14:26-33). Because babies can’t even conceive of these things, infant baptism doesn’t fulfill the biblical requirements.”

    Moreover, “sprinkling or pouring [in]…infant baptism…[does not] symbolize the…complet[e]…burial of the old way of life.”

    Hebrews 10:22 refers to the sprinkling of blood, not water (Heb. 9:19-21; 11:28; 12:24).

    Secondly, he says the convert crucified with Christ “received exactly the same gift as the believer who was baptized.”

    By contrast, Mark 16:16 and “Acts 2:38 stat[e] that baptism is a required condition for forgiveness [& salvation]…God holds each person guilty…until [their] sins are blotted out at baptism (Acts 3:19; 22:16).”

    For Luke 23:43:

    Lastly, he posits that not baptizing into a church “is…an abuse of the sacrament.” We teach a person “is not [to be] baptized into any particular sect or denomination…[but rather, into]…Christ (1 Cor. 12:27; Eph. 2:19-22).”

  • nathanalbright

    Thanks for your thoughtful questions. I would like other people to tackle the infant baptism aspect of your questions (though I think you argue reasonably), but I would like to comment on the aspect of rebaptism as it relates to Hebrews 6:4-6. Acts 19:1-7 tells the story of about twelve of John the Baptist’s disciples who had already been baptized and believers but had never been baptized into the Holy Spirit. They were “re-baptized” without any kind of problems, receiving the Holy Spirit in their second water baptism, but their first baptism in Christ, with fuller knowledge of salvation, as their first baptism had been a baptism of repentance but not with the Holy Spirit.

    Let us compare this with what Hebrews 6:4-6 says that those who have tasted repentance, if they have partaken of the Holy Spirit and totally rejected it, there is no opportunity for a second baptism of repentance. We must not taking falling away as a fallow period where someone struggles with a sin or with a trial, but rather as a Satan-like rejection of God. Once someone has presumptuously rejected God, there is no hope of repentance because one’s thinking has become so warped that one is knowingly and implacably hostile to God, an anti-Christ, if you will permit the use of this term. We ought not to assume that most people who start the Christian road and depart from it do not do so in a high-handed and rebellious way, but mostly because they are hurt and damaged by human imperfections within themselves and within the Body of Christ. We ought not to condemn such people with the arch-rebels against God, for God is longsuffering and desires that none should perish, but that all should come to repentance. And who among us has not struggled, even after baptism, with grave and serious sins, or the battle against despair and despondency? As God has been merciful to us, let us be merciful to others and not consign the weak and the wounded to eternal judgment simply because they are nursing their wounds for a season?

  • onormanns

    Thank you Ivan Veller.

    I concur with your assessment, and I feel the call to get a new start and commitment with Jesus, the deeper the better.

    Second becomes the hindrance as to whom should one turn to perform the baptism. Though 7DA and JW do full immersion baptism it is not into their apostate church in any way I want. We stand today up against two problems in our so-called Christianity; that of sectarianism and Elitism, cult and institutions. In this wonderful country of Norway, we where once a descent follower of Jesus, now the apostasy of the world has brought the big falling away, as in America. The difference is that you still have many remnants, here those who seek are more or less captured into the cultist or elitists, and the institutional church still are cheap on their sprinkling water, despite we have plenty of rain here:)
    This does not worry me, the Lord will provide, and my heart is already circumcised and set firm in Him.
    By the way He said be ye two or three witnesses and I will be among you, so followers of Jesus I will find.

    Then comes the next circular question: these are also infant baptized, it reeks of cheap baptism into cheap grace here. I think that one of the mysteries is that this Flame of the Holy spirit is to be brought from an uncut chain all the way back to the apostolic baptism from Jesus himself. As such the true Body of Christ brings in new members, whom else.
    So I do pray my Dear Lord would offer me a proper bath:)

    In Love and in Christ: from the Bride who sang: Love thee are Loved.


  • KARS

    Here is another way to look at it. I have no arguement with Mr. Veller or Mr. Bright.

    I was raised a catholic, baptised, went through my childhood ceremonies, and even married in the church. But you know what, I didn’t know anything. Just holy days, rituals, and catachism.

    I can honestly tell you that children don’t understand sin. Just you are being bad or good job. Don’t do this,or that, do this.

    Until ones eyes are opened to God or Father’s Gospel of the Kingdom. We go around blindly not even knowing the whole truth.
    Many christian churches have some truths but you can’t have some of it and the rest lies and falsehoods. That is being double-minded. As the LORD said in times of old you can’t serve God and mammon. It’s all or nothing.

    A child can’t count the cost and turn their life around and give freely of thier self to the service of God our Father and His Son. They can’t even speak yet; add or subtract. They are potentional sons and daughters of God once they begin to really understand what they are doing. It’s hard enough to get through school, let-alone understand right from wrong.

  • Ivan Veller

    So true, Kars–we must count the cost! As Christ said, “’…be My disciple. But don’t begin until you count the cost’ ” (Luke 14:27b-28, NIV 2011).

    An additional way to look at it: Even Christ, who “ ‘about My father’s business’ ” by age 12 (Luke 2:42,29), became baptized at age 30 (Luke 3:21-23).

  • Skip

    Hello Norman,
    Here is the short answer: yes, you as a thinking adult need to be baptized (full immersion) for forgiveness of all your sins. That is a great beginning of a new life. But it is only a beginning.

    And I like what you told us that Dietrich Bonhoeffer said.
    I like it because only a thinking adult could accomplish the task.

    Baptism is for those of mature understanding.

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