John confirms that Jesus was the divine Word through whom God created the universe: "All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made" (John 1:1-3; John 1:14).
Paul states directly that "God . . .created all things through Jesus Christ" (Ephesians 3:9). He elsewhere writes of Jesus: "For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him" (Colossians 1:16). He adds in verse 17, "and in Him all things consist" (Colossians 1:17).
The Old Testament presents God as Creator of the universe (Genesis 1:1; Isaiah 40:25-28). When the early Christians said Jesus was the One through whom all things were created, they were clearly saying that Jesus is God.
Jesus claimed to be all that God is, and the disciples believed and taught it. They understood that Jesus was "the exact expression of His [the Father’s] nature" (Hebrews 1:3, HCSB) and "the image of the invisible God" (Colossians 1:15), and that "in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily" (Colossians 2:9, NRSV).
They understood precisely who He was and still is from His own words and actions. There was no question in their minds. They had seen Him prove it time and time again. They would go to their martyrdom firm in this conviction.