Key Elements of the Sinai Covenant

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Key Elements of the Sinai Covenant

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It dealt with penalties for criminal acts, how judges should decide criminal cases, safeguards against poverty, conduct of the priesthood, the design and physical trappings of the tabernacle, ceremonial cleanliness, animal control, instruction on morality, tithing, sacred festivals, agriculture, health principles and many other aspects of life.

The breadth and exhaustive detail of its requirements reflected its orientation. It defined a system of governance for a nation whose citizens, except for a few selected leaders, did not have God's Spirit.

It was created for people whose hearts were spiritually hardened, whose minds did not perceive the full spiritual intent of God's teachings (Matthew 13:15 Matthew 13:15For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
American King James Version×
; Acts 28:27 Acts 28:27For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
American King James Version×
; quoted from Isaiah 6:9-10 Isaiah 6:9-10 [9] And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear you indeed, but understand not; and see you indeed, but perceive not. [10] Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.
American King James Version×
). Though it instructed the people to draw near to God and serve Him faithfully, it held national and local leaders responsible for their obedience. For the good of all, it also prescribed specific punishments for those who refused to be obedient.

Israel's tabernacle—later its temple—was the center of its national worship of God. Exodus 25 to 31 describes in great detail how the tabernacle was designed and consecrated. The same care is given to describing the vestments and responsibilities of Aaron and other priests. Detailed instructions relating to the tabernacle's craftsmen, sacred articles and offerings are included (Exodus 35:4-35 Exodus 35:4-35 [4] And Moses spoke to all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying, This is the thing which the LORD commanded, saying, [5] Take you from among you an offering to the LORD: whoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, an offering of the LORD; gold, and silver, and brass, [6] And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, [7] And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood, [8] And oil for the light, and spices for anointing oil, and for the sweet incense, [9] And onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod, and for the breastplate. [10] And every wise hearted among you shall come, and make all that the LORD has commanded; [11] The tabernacle, his tent, and his covering, his clasps, and his boards, his bars, his pillars, and his sockets, [12] The ark, and the staves thereof, with the mercy seat, and the veil of the covering, [13] The table, and his staves, and all his vessels, and the show bread, [14] The candlestick also for the light, and his furniture, and his lamps, with the oil for the light, [15] And the incense altar, and his staves, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the hanging for the door at the entering in of the tabernacle, [16] The altar of burnt offering, with his brazen grate, his staves, and all his vessels, the laver and his foot, [17] The hangings of the court, his pillars, and their sockets, and the hanging for the door of the court, [18] The pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords, [19] The cloths of service, to do service in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office. [20] And all the congregation of the children of Israel departed from the presence of Moses. [21] And they came, every one whose heart stirred him up, and every one whom his spirit made willing, and they brought the LORD's offering to the work of the tabernacle of the congregation, and for all his service, and for the holy garments. [22] And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold: and every man that offered offered an offering of gold to the LORD. [23] And every man, with whom was found blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, and red skins of rams, and badgers' skins, brought them. [24] Every one that did offer an offering of silver and brass brought the LORD's offering: and every man, with whom was found shittim wood for any work of the service, brought it. [25] And all the women that were wise hearted did spin with their hands, and brought that which they had spun, both of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine linen. [26] And all the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun goats' hair. [27] And the rulers brought onyx stones, and stones to be set, for the ephod, and for the breastplate; [28] And spice, and oil for the light, and for the anointing oil, and for the sweet incense. [29] The children of Israel brought a willing offering to the LORD, every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring for all manner of work, which the LORD had commanded to be made by the hand of Moses. [30] And Moses said to the children of Israel, See, the LORD has called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; [31] And he has filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; [32] And to devise curious works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, [33] And in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of wood, to make any manner of cunning work. [34] And he has put in his heart that he may teach, both he, and Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. [35] Them has he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all manner of work, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of them that do any work, and of those that devise cunning work.
American King James Version×
; Exodus 36:1 Exodus 36:1Then worked Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whom the LORD put wisdom and understanding to know how to work all manner of work for the service of the sanctuary, according to all that the LORD had commanded.
American King James Version×
). How the tabernacle was to be constructed is carefully explained (Exodus 36:2-38 Exodus 36:2-38 [2] And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whose heart the LORD had put wisdom, even every one whose heart stirred him up to come to the work to do it: [3] And they received of Moses all the offering, which the children of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, to make it with. And they brought yet to him free offerings every morning. [4] And all the wise men, that worked all the work of the sanctuary, came every man from his work which they made; [5] And they spoke to Moses, saying, The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work, which the LORD commanded to make. [6] And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman make any more work for the offering of the sanctuary. So the people were restrained from bringing. [7] For the stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much. [8] And every wise hearted man among them that worked the work of the tabernacle made ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubim of cunning work made he them. [9] The length of one curtain was twenty and eight cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: the curtains were all of one size. [10] And he coupled the five curtains one to another: and the other five curtains he coupled one to another. [11] And he made loops of blue on the edge of one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling: likewise he made in the uttermost side of another curtain, in the coupling of the second. [12] Fifty loops made he in one curtain, and fifty loops made he in the edge of the curtain which was in the coupling of the second: the loops held one curtain to another. [13] And he made fifty clasps of gold, and coupled the curtains one to another with the clasps: so it became one tabernacle. [14] And he made curtains of goats' hair for the tent over the tabernacle: eleven curtains he made them. [15] The length of one curtain was thirty cubits, and four cubits was the breadth of one curtain: the eleven curtains were of one size. [16] And he coupled five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves. [17] And he made fifty loops on the uttermost edge of the curtain in the coupling, and fifty loops made he on the edge of the curtain which couples the second. [18] And he made fifty clasps of brass to couple the tent together, that it might be one. [19] And he made a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of badgers' skins above that. [20] And he made boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood, standing up. [21] The length of a board was ten cubits, and the breadth of a board one cubit and a half. [22] One board had two tenons, equally distant one from another: thus did he make for all the boards of the tabernacle. [23] And he made boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side southward: [24] And forty sockets of silver he made under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons. [25] And for the other side of the tabernacle, which is toward the north corner, he made twenty boards, [26] And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board. [27] And for the sides of the tabernacle westward he made six boards. [28] And two boards made he for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides. [29] And they were coupled beneath, and coupled together at the head thereof, to one ring: thus he did to both of them in both the corners. [30] And there were eight boards; and their sockets were sixteen sockets of silver, under every board two sockets. [31] And he made bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, [32] And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the tabernacle for the sides westward. [33] And he made the middle bar to shoot through the boards from the one end to the other. [34] And he overlaid the boards with gold, and made their rings of gold to be places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold. [35] And he made a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: with cherubim made he it of cunning work. [36] And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: their hooks were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver. [37] And he made an hanging for the tabernacle door of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needlework; [38] And the five pillars of it with their hooks: and he overlaid their capitals and their fillets with gold: but their five sockets were of brass.
American King James Version×
; Exodus 37:1-29 Exodus 37:1-29 [1] And Bezaleel made the ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half was the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it, and a cubit and a half the height of it: [2] And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a crown of gold to it round about. [3] And he cast for it four rings of gold, to be set by the four corners of it; even two rings on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it. [4] And he made staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. [5] And he put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, to bear the ark. [6] And he made the mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half was the length thereof, and one cubit and a half the breadth thereof. [7] And he made two cherubim of gold, beaten out of one piece made he them, on the two ends of the mercy seat; [8] One cherub on the end on this side, and another cherub on the other end on that side: out of the mercy seat made he the cherubim on the two ends thereof. [9] And the cherubim spread out their wings on high, and covered with their wings over the mercy seat, with their faces one to another; even to the mercy seat were the faces of the cherubim. [10] And he made the table of shittim wood: two cubits was the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof: [11] And he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereunto a crown of gold round about. [12] Also he made thereunto a border of an handbreadth round about; and made a crown of gold for the border thereof round about. [13] And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings on the four corners that were in the four feet thereof. [14] Over against the border were the rings, the places for the staves to bear the table. [15] And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear the table. [16] And he made the vessels which were on the table, his dishes, and his spoons, and his bowls, and his covers to cover with, of pure gold. [17] And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the candlestick; his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, were of the same: [18] And six branches going out of the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof: [19] Three bowls made after the fashion of almonds in one branch, a bud and a flower; and three bowls made like almonds in another branch, a bud and a flower: so throughout the six branches going out of the candlestick. [20] And in the candlestick were four bowls made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers: [21] And a bud under two branches of the same, and a bud under two branches of the same, and a bud under two branches of the same, according to the six branches going out of it. [22] Their knops and their branches were of the same: all of it was one beaten work of pure gold. [23] And he made his seven lamps, and his snuffers, and his firepans, of pure gold. [24] Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels thereof. [25] And he made the incense altar of shittim wood: the length of it was a cubit, and the breadth of it a cubit; it was foursquare; and two cubits was the height of it; the horns thereof were of the same. [26] And he overlaid it with pure gold, both the top of it, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns of it: also he made to it a crown of gold round about. [27] And he made two rings of gold for it under the crown thereof, by the two corners of it, on the two sides thereof, to be places for the staves to bear it with. [28] And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. [29] And he made the holy anointing oil, and the pure incense of sweet spices, according to the work of the apothecary.
American King James Version×
; Exodus 38:1-31 Exodus 38:1-31 [1] And he made the altar of burnt offering of shittim wood: five cubits was the length thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof; it was foursquare; and three cubits the height thereof. [2] And he made the horns thereof on the four corners of it; the horns thereof were of the same: and he overlaid it with brass. [3] And he made all the vessels of the altar, the pots, and the shovels, and the basins, and the meat hooks, and the fire pans: all the vessels thereof made he of brass. [4] And he made for the altar a brazen grate of network under the compass thereof beneath to the middle of it. [5] And he cast four rings for the four ends of the grate of brass, to be places for the staves. [6] And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with brass. [7] And he put the staves into the rings on the sides of the altar, to bear it with; he made the altar hollow with boards. [8] And he made the laver of brass, and the foot of it of brass, of the mirrors of the women assembling, which assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. [9] And he made the court: on the south side southward the hangings of the court were of fine twined linen, an hundred cubits: [10] Their pillars were twenty, and their brazen sockets twenty; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets were of silver. [11] And for the north side the hangings were an hundred cubits, their pillars were twenty, and their sockets of brass twenty; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. [12] And for the west side were hangings of fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their sockets ten; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. [13] And for the east side eastward fifty cubits. [14] The hangings of the one side of the gate were fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their sockets three. [15] And for the other side of the court gate, on this hand and that hand, were hangings of fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their sockets three. [16] All the hangings of the court round about were of fine twined linen. [17] And the sockets for the pillars were of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their capitals of silver; and all the pillars of the court were filleted with silver. [18] And the hanging for the gate of the court was needlework, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: and twenty cubits was the length, and the height in the breadth was five cubits, answerable to the hangings of the court. [19] And their pillars were four, and their sockets of brass four; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their capitals and their fillets of silver. [20] And all the pins of the tabernacle, and of the court round about, were of brass. [21] This is the sum of the tabernacle, even of the tabernacle of testimony, as it was counted, according to the commandment of Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, son to Aaron the priest. [22] And Bezaleel the son Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the LORD commanded Moses. [23] And with him was Aholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue, and in purple, and in scarlet, and fine linen. [24] All the gold that was occupied for the work in all the work of the holy place, even the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary. [25] And the silver of them that were numbered of the congregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and three score and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary: [26] A bekah for every man, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty men. [27] And of the hundred talents of silver were cast the sockets of the sanctuary, and the sockets of the veil; an hundred sockets of the hundred talents, a talent for a socket. [28] And of the thousand seven hundred seventy and five shekels he made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their capitals, and filleted them. [29] And the brass of the offering was seventy talents, and two thousand and four hundred shekels. [30] And therewith he made the sockets to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and the brazen altar, and the brazen grate for it, and all the vessels of the altar, [31] And the sockets of the court round about, and the sockets of the court gate, and all the pins of the tabernacle, and all the pins of the court round about.
American King James Version×
; Exodus 39:1-43 Exodus 39:1-43 [1] And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they made cloths of service, to do service in the holy place, and made the holy garments for Aaron; as the LORD commanded Moses. [2] And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. [3] And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work. [4] They made shoulder pieces for it, to couple it together: by the two edges was it coupled together. [5] And the curious girdle of his ephod, that was on it, was of the same, according to the work thereof; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; as the LORD commanded Moses. [6] And they worked onyx stones enclosed in ouches of gold, graven, as signets are graven, with the names of the children of Israel. [7] And he put them on the shoulders of the ephod, that they should be stones for a memorial to the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses. [8] And he made the breastplate of cunning work, like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. [9] It was foursquare; they made the breastplate double: a span was the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof, being doubled. [10] And they set in it four rows of stones: the first row was a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this was the first row. [11] And the second row, an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond. [12] And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. [13] And the fourth row, a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper: they were enclosed in ouches of gold in their settings. [14] And the stones were according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet, every one with his name, according to the twelve tribes. [15] And they made on the breastplate chains at the ends, of wreathen work of pure gold. [16] And they made two ouches of gold, and two gold rings; and put the two rings in the two ends of the breastplate. [17] And they put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings on the ends of the breastplate. [18] And the two ends of the two wreathen chains they fastened in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, before it. [19] And they made two rings of gold, and put them on the two ends of the breastplate, on the border of it, which was on the side of the ephod inward. [20] And they made two other golden rings, and put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart of it, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod. [21] And they did bind the breastplate by his rings to the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it might be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate might not be loosed from the ephod; as the LORD commanded Moses. [22] And he made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue. [23] And there was an hole in the middle of the robe, as the hole of an habergeon, with a band round about the hole, that it should not rend. [24] And they made on the hems of the robe pomegranates of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen. [25] And they made bells of pure gold, and put the bells between the pomegranates on the hem of the robe, round about between the pomegranates; [26] A bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, round about the hem of the robe to minister in; as the LORD commanded Moses. [27] And they made coats of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for his sons, [28] And a turban of fine linen, and goodly bonnets of fine linen, and linen breeches of fine twined linen, [29] And a girdle of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, of needlework; as the LORD commanded Moses. [30] And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote on it a writing, like to the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD. [31] And they tied to it a lace of blue, to fasten it on high on the turban; as the LORD commanded Moses. [32] Thus was all the work of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation finished: and the children of Israel did according to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so did they. [33] And they brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent, and all his furniture, his clasps, his boards, his bars, and his pillars, and his sockets, [34] And the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the covering of badgers' skins, and the veil of the covering, [35] The ark of the testimony, and the staves thereof, and the mercy seat, [36] The table, and all the vessels thereof, and the show bread, [37] The pure candlestick, with the lamps thereof, even with the lamps to be set in order, and all the vessels thereof, and the oil for light, [38] And the golden altar, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, and the hanging for the tabernacle door, [39] The brazen altar, and his grate of brass, his staves, and all his vessels, the laver and his foot, [40] The hangings of the court, his pillars, and his sockets, and the hanging for the court gate, his cords, and his pins, and all the vessels of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of the congregation, [41] The cloths of service to do service in the holy place, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and his sons' garments, to minister in the priest's office. [42] According to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so the children of Israel made all the work. [43] And Moses did look on all the work, and, behold, they had done it as the LORD had commanded, even so had they done it: and Moses blessed them.
American King James Version×
; Exodus 40:1-38 Exodus 40:1-38 [1] And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, [2] On the first day of the first month shall you set up the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. [3] And you shall put therein the ark of the testimony, and cover the ark with the veil. [4] And you shall bring in the table, and set in order the things that are to be set in order on it; and you shall bring in the candlestick, and light the lamps thereof. [5] And you shall set the altar of gold for the incense before the ark of the testimony, and put the hanging of the door to the tabernacle. [6] And you shall set the altar of the burnt offering before the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. [7] And you shall set the laver between the tent of the congregation and the altar, and shall put water therein. [8] And you shall set up the court round about, and hang up the hanging at the court gate. [9] And you shall take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shall hallow it, and all the vessels thereof: and it shall be holy. [10] And you shall anoint the altar of the burnt offering, and all his vessels, and sanctify the altar: and it shall be an altar most holy. [11] And you shall anoint the laver and his foot, and sanctify it. [12] And you shall bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and wash them with water. [13] And you shall put on Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify him; that he may minister to me in the priest's office. [14] And you shall bring his sons, and clothe them with coats: [15] And you shall anoint them, as you did anoint their father, that they may minister to me in the priest's office: for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations. [16] Thus did Moses: according to all that the LORD commanded him, so did he. [17] And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up. [18] And Moses reared up the tabernacle, and fastened his sockets, and set up the boards thereof, and put in the bars thereof, and reared up his pillars. [19] And he spread abroad the tent over the tabernacle, and put the covering of the tent above on it; as the LORD commanded Moses. [20] And he took and put the testimony into the ark, and set the staves on the ark, and put the mercy seat above on the ark: [21] And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up the veil of the covering, and covered the ark of the testimony; as the LORD commanded Moses. [22] And he put the table in the tent of the congregation, on the side of the tabernacle northward, without the veil. [23] And he set the bread in order on it before the LORD; as the LORD had commanded Moses. [24] And he put the candlestick in the tent of the congregation, over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle southward. [25] And he lighted the lamps before the LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses. [26] And he put the golden altar in the tent of the congregation before the veil: [27] And he burnt sweet incense thereon; as the LORD commanded Moses. [28] And he set up the hanging at the door of the tabernacle. [29] And he put the altar of burnt offering by the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meat offering; as the LORD commanded Moses. [30] And he set the laver between the tent of the congregation and the altar, and put water there, to wash with. [31] And Moses and Aaron and his sons washed their hands and their feet thereat: [32] When they went into the tent of the congregation, and when they came near to the altar, they washed; as the LORD commanded Moses. [33] And he reared up the court round about the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the hanging of the court gate. So Moses finished the work. [34] Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. [35] And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of the congregation, because the cloud stayed thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. [36] And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward in all their journeys: [37] But if the cloud were not taken up, then they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up. [38] For the cloud of the LORD was on the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.
American King James Version×
).

The book of Leviticus highlights a variety of other ceremonial aspects of the Sinai Covenant. Especially detailed are the instructions concerning duties of the priesthood, daily animal sacrifices and more sacrifices on weekly Sabbaths and annual festivals. This covenant was rich in ceremonies and rituals that were characteristic of the temporary and mostly physically oriented relationship between ancient Israel and God (see Hebrews 8:1-5 Hebrews 8:1-5 [1] Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; [2] A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. [3] For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: why it is of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer. [4] For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law: [5] Who serve to the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, said he, that you make all things according to the pattern showed to you in the mount.
American King James Version×
).

Yet its rituals also symbolized the greatly improved spiritual relationship the Messiah was to establish with all Israelites in the future. Included in that better relationship will be not only the Jews but also the restored descendants of the other tribes of Israel who—in the future—are prophesied to return to their homeland (Jeremiah 23:5-8 Jeremiah 23:5-8 [5] Behold, the days come, said the LORD, that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. [6] In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. [7] Therefore, behold, the days come, said the LORD, that they shall no more say, The LORD lives, which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; [8] But, The LORD lives, which brought up and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries where I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.
American King James Version×
), as well as all other nations and all who are willing to submit to God and learn of His ways (Micah 4:1-4 Micah 4:1-4 [1] But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow to it. [2] And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. [3] And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. [4] But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and none shall make them afraid: for the mouth of the LORD of hosts has spoken it.
American King James Version×
).