Jesus' seventh and last message to the congregations of Revelation 2 and 3 was in stark contrast to His previous one to Philadelphia. Whereas Philadelphia is unique in that it did not receive any condemnation, Laodicea is unique in that it does not receive any commendation.
There were apparently several cities named Laodicea in Syria and Asia Minor. The one Jesus was referring to lay in the fertile Lycus Valley in Phrygia on the river Lycus. It was about 45 miles southeast of Philadelphia, 100 miles east of Ephesus and 10 miles west of Colossae. “The great Roman road stretching to the inland of Asia from the coast at Ephesus ran straight through its center, making Laodicea an important center of trade and communication” ( Expositor's Bible Commentary ).
“After having been successively called Diosopolis and Rhoas, it was named Laodicea in honor of Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II (261-246 B.C.), who rebuilt it. It was destroyed by an earthquake (A.D. 66 or earlier) and rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius…The town was located on a flat-topped hill. A wall (about a kilometer long on each of its four sides) surrounded the crown of the hill. Gates pierced this wall on the N, E, and NW. At the SW edge of the plateau stood a stadium, built and dedicated to Vespasian in A.D. 79” ( New Unger's Bible Dictionary, 1988, article “Laodicea”).
“Though Laodicea stood on the great highway at the junction of several important routes, it was a place of little consequence until the Roman province of Asia was formed in 190 BC. It then suddenly became a great and wealthy center of industry, famous specially for the fine black wool of its sheep and for the Phrygian powder for the eyes, which was manufactured there (compare Revelation 3:18 Revelation 3:18I counsel you to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that you may be rich; and white raiment, that you may be clothed, and that the shame of your nakedness do not appear; and anoint your eyes with eye salve, that you may see.
American King James Version×). In the vicinity was the temple of Men Karou and a renowned school of medicine…” ( International Standard Bible Encylopaedia, Electronic Database, 1996 by Biblesoft, article “Laodicea”). Although the city also produced ear ointments, it was widely renowned for its Phrygian powder, a medicine famous for curing eye defects.
So situated and blessed with economic prosperity, this city “became extremely wealthy during the Roman period. For example, in 62 B.C. Flaccus seized the annual contribution of the Jews of Laodicea for Jerusalem amounting to 20 pounds of gold. Moreover, when the city was destroyed by an earthquake in A.D. 60 (along with Colossae and Hierapolis), it alone refused aid from Rome for rebuilding” ( Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 1986, Thomas Nelson Publishers, article “Laodicea”). History also records Cicero cashing large bank drafts here without problem.
For all of its prosperity, Laodicea had one significant physical flaw—its water supply. “A six-mile-long aqueduct brought Laodicea its supply of water from the south. The water came either from hot springs and was cooled to lukewarm or came from a cooler source and warmed up in the aqueduct on the way” ( Expositor's Bible Commentary ).
“The ruins, now called Eski Hissar, or old castle, lie near the modern Gonjelli on the railroad, and they have long served as a quarry to the builders of the neighboring town of Denizli. Among them nothing from before the Roman period has appeared. One of the two Roman theaters is remarkably well preserved, and there may still be seen the stadium, a colonnade, the aqueduct which brought the water across the valley to the city by an inverted siphon of stone pipes, a large necropolis, and the ruins of three early Christian churches” ( International Standard Bible Encylopaedia, Electronic Database, 1996 by Biblesoft, article “Laodicea”).
Jesus began this message by describing Himself as “the Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Beginning of the creation of God” (Revelation 3:14 Revelation 3:14And to the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things said the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;
American King James Version×). There are all titles or names of Jesus that represent His trustworthy nature and involvement in creation.
The word “Beginning,” from the Greek, arche, has been misunderstood by some to mean that Jesus was a created Being. Several biblical resources note that this interpretation is incorrect.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words explains that arche can be understood as “the origin, the active cause, whether a person or thing, e. g., Colossians 1:18 Colossians 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
American King James Version×; (1985, article “Begin, Beginning, Beginner”). The Expositor's Bible Commentary adds: “The 'ruler' ( arche , 'source,' 'origin') further amplifies the Amen statement. Paul used arche in Colossians 1:18 Colossians 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
American King James Version×to describe Christ as the source or origin of all creation (not the first created; cf. Proverbs 8:22 Proverbs 8:22The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old.
American King James Version×; John 1:3 John 1:3All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
American King James Version×), no doubt to correct a heresy.
“Since Colosse was a neighboring city of Laodicea, it is not improbable that the same heresy was also affecting the sister church at Laodicea. But this is not explicit. What is plain is this: When Christ addresses a church that is failing in loyalty and obedience, he is to them the 'Amen' of God in faithfulness and in true witness, the only one who has absolute power over the world because he is the source and origin of all creation (1:17; 2:8; 22:13).”
A “Lukewarm” Condition
Jesus began His message saying, “I know your works, that you are neither cold nor hot. I could wish you were cold or hot. So then, because you are lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit you out of My mouth” (verses 15-16). As we noted previously, works are important to Jesus. Showing that He was intimately aware of all their actions and circumstances, Jesus likened their indifferent spiritual condition to their city's poor water supply.
Seven miles north of Laodicea, lay the city of Hierapolis with its famous hot springs. Jesus may have had this in mind by His use of the word “hot.” His use of “cold” may have referred to useful cool water at Colosse, only 10 miles east of the city. Though historians are not sure whether Laodicea's water source was cold or hot, by the time it arrived in Laodicea, through the six-mile aqueduct to the south, it was lukewarm and, apparently, distasteful.
After comparing the congregation's works to the temperature of the city's water, Jesus continued the analogy to reveal His reaction to their spiritual condition. Just as drinking distasteful or contaminated water can cause people to vomit, Jesus said He would vomit them out of His mouth. What a detestable picture!
Continuing, Jesus said He would vomit them out of His mouth, “Because you say, 'I am rich, have become wealthy, and have need of nothing'— and do not know that you are wretched, miserable, poor, blind, and naked” (verse 17). Sadly, the Laodiceans did not know their true condition. They were blinded by their economic prosperity and wealth. They undoubtedly assumed these blessings from God represented His approval. Yet physical wealth and spiritual wealth are not necessarily the same (see Matthew 6:19-20 Matthew 6:19-20 19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust does corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:
20 But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust does corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal:
American King James Version×and Hebrews 11:26 Hebrews 11:26Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect to the recompense of the reward.
American King James Version×). Unfortunately, the Laodiceans were unaware of their real spiritual state.
The problem in Laodicea was not unusual. The Bible has numerous warnings regarding humanity's deceitful nature. Jeremiah 17:9 Jeremiah 17:9The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?
American King James Version×says the human heart is “is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked.” Proverbs 14:12 Proverbs 14:12There is a way which seems right to a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.
American King James Version×and 16:25 say, “There is a way that seems right to a man, but its end is the way of death.” And sadly, self-deception continues today, especially in religious matters.
Recent reports indicate that with increasing regularity, many people today desire spirituality in their lives but are unwilling to follow specific instructions on how to achieve it. Instead of accepting a single organization's teachings, many now pick and choose from numerous ideas in assembling their own eclectic collections of religious ideas. This phenomenon has been called “Cafeteria Christianity” and “The Religion of the Sovereign Self.”
Like the Laodiceans of the first century, people who engineer their own religions are generally pleased with their choices and believe God approves of their ways — ways that are in direct contradiction with others holding similarly self-designed religious ideas. Even though Scripture tells us God is not the “author of confusion” (1 Corinthians 14:33 1 Corinthians 14:33For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.
American King James Version×), some mistakenly believe there are many paths to God and that all are acceptable to Him. Paul shows the fallacy of this view saying there is only “one Lord, one faith, one baptism” (Ephesians 4:5 Ephesians 4:5One Lord, one faith, one baptism,
American King James Version×).
Because of our self-deceptive tendencies, God says, “I, the Lord, search the heart, I test the mind, even to give every man according to his ways, according to the fruit of his doings” (Jeremiah 17:10 Jeremiah 17:10I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings.
American King James Version×). In the message to Thyatira, Jesus said, “all the churches shall know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts. And I will give to each one of you according to your works” (Revelation 2:23 Revelation 2:23And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searches the reins and hearts: and I will give to every one of you according to your works.
American King James Version×).
In order to truly follow God, humans need new hearts (Ezekiel 11:19 Ezekiel 11:19And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh:
American King James Version×; 18:31; 36:26)—ones submissive to Him and those He establishes as teachers in His Church (Ephesians 4:11-12 Ephesians 4:11-12 11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; 12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:
American King James Version×; Hebrews 13:17 Hebrews 13:17Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.
American King James Version×). In sharp contrast to the human proclivity to pick and choose one's own religious ideas, Paul described first century believers as people who had yielded hearts to God, His ministers and the Church. In writing to the Thessalonians, Paul called them “followers of us and of the Lord” (1 Thessalonians 1:6 1 Thessalonians 1:6And you became followers of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost.
American King James Version×) and “imitators of the churches of God” (1 Thessalonians 2:14 1 Thessalonians 2:14For you, brothers, became followers of the churches of God which in Judaea are in Christ Jesus: for you also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they have of the Jews:
American King James Version×).
Even though the Laodiceans had become lukewarm and spiritually blinded, Jesus did not reject them or disassociate Himself from them. He warned them to wake up and change. And He gave them advice on how to do this. “I counsel you to buy from Me gold refined in the fire, that you may be rich; and white garments, that you may be clothed, that the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed; and anoint your eyes with eye salve, that you may see,” said Jesus (verse 18). In this statement, Jesus used three well-known local products to illustrate spiritual principles.
First, was “gold refined in the fire.” While Laodicea's wealth meant it had a great deal of gold within the city, the concepts Jesus had in mind were related to spiritual character. Almost 500 years earlier, the prophet Malachi wrote of Christ's second coming, “But who can endure the day of His coming? And who can stand when He appears? For He is like a refiner's fire and like launderers' soap. He will sit as a refiner and a purifier of silver; he will purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer to the Lord an offering in righteousness” (Malachi 3:2-3 Malachi 3:2-3 2 But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appears? for he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’ soap:
3 And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer to the LORD an offering in righteousness.
American King James Version×).
Similarly, Peter wrote, “In this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been grieved by various trials, that the genuineness of your faith, being much more precious than gold that perishes, though it is tested by fire, may be found to praise, honor, and glory at the revelation of Jesus Christ” (1 Peter 1:6-7 1 Peter 1:6-7 6 Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, you are in heaviness through manifold temptations:
7 That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perishes, though it be tried with fire, might be found to praise and honor and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ:
American King James Version×). Jesus advised the Laodiceans to buy this kind of gold.
Secondly, while local Laodicean merchants produced fine garments from the black wool of the area, Jesus advised buying “white garments.” In doing so, He wasn't simply referring to a different colored garment—but different behavior. In Revelation 19:8 Revelation 19:8And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.
American King James Version×, at the marriage of the Lamb, Jesus said His wife, the Church, “was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.” In the context of the great battle that will take place at Armageddon at Christ's return, He also said, “Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame” (Revelation 16:15 Revelation 16:15Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.
American King James Version×). Jesus told the Laodiceans they needed to be concerned about their spiritual clothing.
Thirdly, Jesus spoke of their need for eye salve so they could see. While the Laodicean's famous Phrygian powder was widely used for eye problems, Jesus was referring to spiritual insight, wisdom and understanding. Upon the successful return of 70 of His disciples who had been sent to various cities to preach the gospel of the Kingdom, “Jesus rejoiced in the Spirit and said, 'I thank You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that You have hidden these things from the wise and prudent and revealed them to babes'” (Luke 10:21 Luke 10:21In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hid these things from the wise and prudent, and have revealed them to babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in your sight.
American King James Version×). Jesus told the Laodiceans they needed the spiritual vision to see their real condition and change.
Lest some think He was uncaring in His correction, Jesus concluded His warning with an explanation of why He had been so critical: “As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten. Therefore be zealous and repent” (verse 19). Because He has no desire to see anyone suffer (2 Peter 3:9 2 Peter 3:9The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is long-suffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.
American King James Version×), Jesus' strong words of correction were delivered to the first century Laodiceans and us today. It is His hope that those who are in need of this advice will be zealous (eager) to repent.
Those who respond to Jesus' words are promised a great reward: “Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me. To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne” (verses 20-21). What a wonderful blessing and opportunity!
Jesus concludes this message saying, “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches” (verse 22). This message and the ones to the other cities were not intended only for the instruction and correction of first century Christians, but for the entire body of Christ in all ages and parts of the world.
Those who are part of this body will undoubtedly resemble these first century congregations in both their actions extolled by Christ and in their sins and weaknesses. God, as a loving parent, will deal justly and fairly with all. The rewards and punishments will remain the same regardless of the age. May God grant us today the spiritual wisdom and understanding to heed our Savior's advice in His messages to His Church. UN