Fake News! Social Media Hoaxes Revisited
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Fake News! Social Media Hoaxes Revisited
Oh, has Facebook been a "fun" place to be since Election Day! I remember scrolling down my news feed about a week after the election, and I found an article. The article said that after all the votes were counted, Donald Trump (R) had actually won the popular vote and defeated Sec. Hilary Clinton (D) there in addition to the Electoral College! I was really surprised by these results. The article went on to describe the powerful mandate Trump now had to govern and enact his agenda.
But then I took a step back.
That report originated from a website called "70 News," which I had never heard of before. They had listed no source for their numbers, so I went to check elsewhere. Other sites (correctly) showed Trump still behind Clinton in the popular vote. And to date, Clinton defeats Trump in the popular vote by almost 3 million votes. "70 News" was no good at all (CBS News, "Google's Top Search Result for 'Final Election Numbers' Leads to Fake News Site," Nov. 14, 2016).
So what happened?
About a year and a half ago I wrote a blog about the many misleading hoaxes that seem to constantly float around social media. Those certainly haven't gone away. In some ways, however, they have given way to another deceptive phenomenon: fake news!
In this "post-truth" era, Christians must continue to be vigilant regarding the information we are given and told to accept, especially on social media.
Fake news is the deliberate proliferation of falsehoods through social media or traditional media outlets (TV, newspapers, etc.), a kind of the "false report" described in Exodus 23:1 Exodus 23:1You shall not raise a false report: put not your hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.
American King James Version×. People often create fake news in hopes of furthering a political agenda, as satire, or to gain ad revenue based on a website's page views. They seek to do this by appealing to specific group of people with a "hot" (but phony) story and convincing them to believe it, share it, and get others to jump onto the digital bandwagon.
At least, that's how it started. Now accusations and arguments about what is or isn't fake news fly back and forth. The phrase has been applied to anything from slightly misleading headlines and opinions on an editorial page to completely made-up "facts" and bogus conspiracy theories.
And it has an impact. In the case of the popular vote, only 68 percent of Republicans correctly stated that Clinton won the popular vote, compared to 81 percent of Democrats, an important find according to Pew Research Center ("Low Approval of Trump's Transition but Outlook for His Presidency Improves," Dec. 8, 2016).
In my last article I explained what to do if you realized you'd already been fooled by a social media hoax. Now, let's examine how to avoid being duped by fake news in the first place by reviewing a few pieces of timeless, biblical advice.
1. Just wait
"The first one to plead his cause seems right, until his neighbor comes and examines him" (Proverbs 18:17 Proverbs 18:17He that is first in his own cause seems just; but his neighbor comes and searches him.
American King James Version×). Initial reports are often inaccurate and incomplete because it takes time for information to be read through and released--or, in the case of fake news, proofread and debunked. Get in the habit of waiting before posting to social media, a hard skill to learn in our instantaneous, "live-as-it-happens," "breaking news" society.
Furthermore, God instructs us to be slow to anger (Proverbs 16:32 Proverbs 16:32He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city.
American King James Version×). Even just a few hours of patience can save you an ounce of online credibility and a pound of outrage.
2. Get the facts
Never simply accept what just one person or website can tell you. See if you can back up what they're saying with other sources. In ancient Israel God required the word of "two or three witnesses" to administer the death penalty (Deuteronomy 17:6 Deuteronomy 17:6At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.
American King James Version×). And in the case of fake news, a quick Internet search for another "witness" can often confirm or deny what you're reading.
Proverbs 15:22 Proverbs 15:22Without counsel purposes are disappointed: but in the multitude of counsellors they are established.
American King James Version×says, "Without counsel, plans go awry, but in the multitude of counselors they are established." In preparing this article, for instance, I read from a variety of sources to gain insight and deepen my understanding of topics at hand.
One of the advantages of the Internet age is the massive amount of knowledge we can access. Want to learn more about a high-profile court case or hot-button piece of legislation? The relevant documents are often published as PDFs online. Wonder if a public figure was taken out of context in an interview? Run over to YouTube and search for the video. Use technology to your advantage as you work to get the facts.
3. The value of a good name
"A good name is to be chosen rather than great riches, loving favor rather than silver and gold" (Proverbs 22:1 Proverbs 22:1A GOOD name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favor rather than silver and gold.
American King James Version×; see also Ecclesiastes 7:1 Ecclesiastes 7:1A good name is better than precious ointment; and the day of death than the day of one's birth.
American King James Version×). People spend their whole lives and careers building up a good reputation for themselves. Repairing a damaged reputation is a thousand times easier said than done.
Consider the reputation of the source of your information. What are they known for? Have you even heard of them before? If you haven't, it's definitely worth confirming their story with another site. How seriously would you take a absolute stranger's word for something without backing it up? Regarding bias, if you know a source slants a particular way, you might try searching for the same topic from a source that slants the other way and then compare what they've both written.
Even fake news websites recognize the value of a good reputation. Sometimes, they will even imitate well-known outlets by using a slightly different logo or deceiving Web address. Be vigilant and keep reputation in mind!
4. Be critical
Nearly 3,000 years ago, King Rehoboam of Israel had a decision to make. The Israelites were clamoring for lower taxes than they had faced under Rehoboam's father, King Solomon. These funds had helped make Solomon a wealthy, prosperous king, and Israel a plentiful nation. So Rehoboam went to his advisors with the decision. The advisors who worked with his father told him to lower the tax burden. However, the younger advisors who grew up with Rehoboam told him to not only maintain but increase the taxes!
Disastrously, Rehoboam chose the latter. The Israelites felt utterly rejected and rebelled against the king's leadership. The chief of Rehoboam's revenue service was brutally murdered. And the unity and prosperity Israel enjoyed under Solomon was tragically lost (1 Kings 12:1-24 1 Kings 12:1-24  And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for all Israel were come to Shechem to make him king.
 And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelled in Egypt;)
 That they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spoke to Rehoboam, saying,
 Your father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make you the grievous service of your father, and his heavy yoke which he put on us, lighter, and we will serve you.
 And he said to them, Depart yet for three days, then come again to me. And the people departed.
 And king Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do you advise that I may answer this people?
 And they spoke to him, saying, If you will be a servant to this people this day, and will serve them, and answer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be your servants for ever.
 But he forsook the counsel of the old men, which they had given him, and consulted with the young men that were grown up with him, and which stood before him:
 And he said to them, What counsel give you that we may answer this people, who have spoken to me, saying, Make the yoke which your father did put on us lighter?
 And the young men that were grown up with him spoke to him, saying, Thus shall you speak to this people that spoke to you, saying, Your father made our yoke heavy, but make you it lighter to us; thus shall you say to them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins.
 And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke: my father has chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
 So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day.
 And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him;
 And spoke to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
 Why the king listened not to the people; for the cause was from the LORD, that he might perform his saying, which the LORD spoke by Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
 So when all Israel saw that the king listened not to them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to your own house, David. So Israel departed to their tents.
 But as for the children of Israel which dwelled in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them.
 Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the tribute; and all Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. Therefore king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem.
 So Israel rebelled against the house of David to this day.
 And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was come again, that they sent and called him to the congregation, and made him king over all Israel: there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.
 And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah, with the tribe of Benjamin, an hundred and fourscore thousand chosen men, which were warriors, to fight against the house of Israel, to bring the kingdom again to Rehoboam the son of Solomon.
 But the word of God came to Shemaiah the man of God, saying,
 Speak to Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and to all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the remnant of the people, saying,
 Thus said the LORD, You shall not go up, nor fight against your brothers the children of Israel: return every man to his house; for this thing is from me. They listened therefore to the word of the LORD, and returned to depart, according to the word of the LORD.
American King James Version×).
So what does this have to do with fake news? More revenue and a cushy lifestyle sounded pretty good to Rehoboam, in the same way the fake news is designed to sound pretty good to you and me. It seems Rehoboam's judgment was clouded by the appeal of luxury and riches. Our judgment must not be clouded when we evaluate the news. We have to learn be critical, letting go of what pleases us the most and what validates our preconceived notions. Sometimes what is true isn't always what sounds good. Sometimes, the truth hurts.
God admonishes you and I to test everything (1 Thessalonians 5:21 1 Thessalonians 5:21Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.
American King James Version×). Human nature is to only intensely question information we don't like, but that isn't what God says to do. He says to test all things, even when we like what we are hearing or take something for granted. The lie Satan developed for Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden was designed to sound good to them, but it was just that: a lie (Genesis 3:1-7 Genesis 3:1-7  Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said to the woman, Yes, has God said, You shall not eat of every tree of the garden?  And the woman said to the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:  But of the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.  And the serpent said to the woman, You shall not surely die:  For God does know that in the day you eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.  And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also to her husband with her; and he did eat.  And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.
American King James Version×). Watch for appeals designed to make you feel very strong emotions: outrage, fear, disgust, validation and so forth. Question and think critically about the information you're given to avoid falling for any fake news.
With America's deep partisan divide in mind, it's hard to see the fake news controversy going anywhere soon. In this "post-truth" era, Christians must continue to be vigilant regarding the information we are given and told to accept, especially on social media. Wait, take a step away from what you're reading, and get a second, third and fourth look at the topic. Evaluate how reputable the sources you're using are. And always stay critical; don't be afraid to ask questions. May you never fall sway to the lies and deception of fake news.